Glossary

  • Adrenal insufficiency – Two small glands positioned just above the kidneys, the adrenal glands produce hormones, including cortisol. Adrenal insufficiency is a hormonal disorder in which the adrenal glands fail to produce sufficient amounts of certain hormones.
  • Alkaline phosphatase – Produced primarily by the liver, alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found in the blood stream that helps break down proteins
  • Arterial Blood Gas Test – This test measures the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. It is an indicator of how well the lungs are able to move oxygen into the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the blood.
  • Asceptic/avascular necrosis –  Also known as osteonecrosis, asceptic or avascular necrosis is the death of bone tissue due to a lack of blood supply.
  • Asthma –  Asthma is a chronic lung disease that inflames and narrows the airways.  It causes recurring periods of wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing.
  • Azathioprine (Imuran)–  A drug used to suppress the immune system, Azathioprine  or Imuran helps treat symptoms such as joint pain and swelling in certain autoimmune conditions.
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage – In this medical procedure, a bronchoscope is passed through the mouth or nose into the lungs to collect fluid for examination. It is typically performed to diagnose lung disease.
  • Biopsy – A procedure to remove a sample of tissue or cells from the body to examine that sample for the presence of disease.
  • CT Scan – A computerized tomography (CT) scan combines a series of X-ray images taken from different angles and uses computer processing to create images of the bones, blood vessels and soft tissues.
  • Cataracts – A cataract is a clouding of the eye lens which impairs vision.
  • Chest x-ray – Chest X-rays produce images of the heart, lungs, blood vessels, airways, bones of the chest and spine.
  • Corticosteriods – Corticosteroids are man-made drugs that closely resemble cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. Commonly used corticosteriods include prednisone and methylprednisolone.
  • Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) – Developed as a cancer drug, Cyclophosphamide or Cytoxan is sometimes used to treat severe cases of sarcoidosis.
  • Cysts – Abnormal sac-like pockets of tissue that often contain fluid, cysts can occur almost anywhere in the body. They may be benign or an indicator of disease.
  • Electrocardiogram – Also known as an EKG or ECG, this test checks for any issues with electrical activity within the heart.
  • Erythema nodosum – Most often occurring on the legs, this skin inflammation produces reddish, tender, even painful lumps, sometimes as large as a quarter.
  • Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy – A visual examination of the breathing passages of the lungs, this procedure involves moving a thin, tube-like instrument outfitted with a camera (a bronchoscope) through the nose or mouth and into the lungs,
  • GGT – Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is primarily present in kidney, liver, and pancreatic cells. Abnormal levels of GGT can indicate the presence of a liver disease.
  • Glaucoma – Often associated with heightened pressure in the eyes, glaucoma can damage the optic nerve and worsen over time.
  • Granuloma – A mass of granulation tissue, typically produced in response to infection, inflammation, or the presence of a foreign substance.
  • Hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) – A disease-modifying, anti-rheumatic drug, Hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) can decrease the pain and swelling of arthritis, may prevent joint damage and reduce the risk of long-term disability.
  • Lupus Pernio – The most characteristic cutaneous (skin) lesion of sarcoidosis, lupus pernio lesions are typically red to purple, swollen, and create shiny skin changes on the nose, cheeks, lips or ears.
  • Lymph node – Part of the lymph system, lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped glands throughout the body. They carry lymph fluid, nutrients, and waste material between the body tissues and the bloodstream, and are an important part of the immune system.
  • Lymphoma – Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop in the lymphatic system.
  • Methotrexate – A drug used to treat certain types of cancer as well as severe psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. It is sometimes used in addition to or instead of corticosteriods to treat certain cases of sarcoidosis.
  • MRI – Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a test that uses a magnetic field and pulses of radio wave energy to make pictures of organs and structures inside the body.
  • Multiple Sclerosis –  A potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system), Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes the immune system to attack nerve fibers and creates communication problems between the brain and the rest of your body.
  • Neurosarcoidosis – A complication of sarcoidosis in which inflammation occurs in the brain, spinal cord, and other areas of the nervous system. It can affect any part of the nervous system, the spinal cord and brain, and cause a wide range of conditions, including fatigue, difficulty walking, vertigo and dementia.
  • Ophthalmologist – A specialist in medical and surgical eye problems.
  • Platelets – A component of blood whose function is to stop bleeding by clumping and clotting blood vessel injuries.
  • Prednisone – A corticosteriod, prednisone provides relief for inflamed areas of the body. It is used to treat a number of different conditions, such as inflammation, adrenal problems, arthritis, asthma, endocrine problems, kidney problems, ulcerative colitis, multiple sclerosis and sarcoidosis.
  • Pulmonologist – A physician with specialized knowledge in the diagnosis and treatment of lung conditions and diseases.
  • Pulse Oximetry – A simple test that measures the oxygen content of the blood.
  • PET Scan – A positron emission tomography (PET) scan is a type of imaging test that uses a radioactive substance to look for disease in the body and show how organs and tissues are working.
  • Rheumatologist – An internist with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal disease and systemic autoimmune conditions.
  • Spleen – An abdominal organ involved in the production and removal of blood cells, the spleen plays a key role in healthy functioning of the immune system.
  • Spirometer – An instrument that measures the air capacity of the lungs.
  • Thallium and Gallium Scans – Scans that use a radioactive material (a tracer) to look for infection, inflammation and tumors in the body.